Berk M, Copolov D, Dean O, Lu K, Jeavons S, Schapkaitz I, Anderson-Hunt M, Judd F, Katz F, Katz P, Ording-Jespersen S, Little J, Conus P, Cuenod M, Do KQ, Bush AI. N-acetyl cysteine as a glutathione precursor for schizophrenia–a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Sep 1;64(5):361-8.
BACKGROUND: Brain glutathione levels are decreased in schizophrenia, a disorder that often is chronic and refractory to treatment. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) increases brain glutathione in rodents. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of oral NAC (1 g orally twice daily [b.i.d.]) as an add-on to maintenance medication for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia over a 24-week period. METHODS: A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary readout was change from baseline on the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) and its components. Secondary readouts included the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Severity and Improvement scales, as well as general functioning and extrapyramidal rating scales. Changes following a 4-week treatment discontinuation were evaluated. One hundred forty people with chronic schizophrenia on maintenance antipsychotic medication were randomized; 84 completed treatment. RESULTS: Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that subjects treated with NAC improved more than placebo-treated subjects over the study period in PANSS total [-5.97 (-10.44, -1.51), p = .009], PANSS negative [mean difference -1.83 (95% confidence interval: -3.33, -.32), p = .018], and PANSS general [-2.79 (-5.38, -.20), p = .035], CGI-Severity (CGI-S) [-.26 (-.44, -.08), p = .004], and CGI-Improvement (CGI-I) [-.22 (-.41, -.03), p = .025] scores. No significant change on the PANSS positive subscale was seen. N-acetyl cysteine treatment also was associated with an improvement in akathisia (p = .022). Effect sizes at end point were consistent with moderate benefits. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that adjunctive NAC has potential as a safe and moderately effective augmentation strategy for chronic schizophrenia.
Berk M, Copolov DL, Dean O, Lu K, Jeavons S, Schapkaitz I, Anderson-Hunt M, Bush AI. N-acetyl cysteine for depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder–a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Sep 15;64(6):468-75.
BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant subthreshold depression is a major problem in bipolar disorder. Both depression and bipolar disorder are complicated by glutathione depletion. We hypothesized that treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a safe, orally bioavailable precursor of glutathione, may improve the depressive component of bipolar disorder. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study of individuals (n = 75) with bipolar disorder in the maintenance phase treated with NAC (1 g twice daily) adjunctive to usual medication over 24 weeks, with a 4-week washout. The two primary outcomes were the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and time to a mood episode. Secondary outcomes included the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale and 11 other ratings of clinical status, quality of life, and functioning. RESULTS: NAC treatment caused a significant improvement on the MADRS (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]: -8.05 [-13.16, -2.95], p = .002) and most secondary scales at end point. Benefit was evident by 8 weeks on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and at 20 weeks on the MADRS. Improvements were lost after washout. There was no effect of NAC on time to a mood episode (log-rank test: p = .968) and no significant between-group differences in adverse events. Effect sizes at end point were medium to high for improvements in MADRS and 9 of the 12 secondary readouts. CONCLUSIONS: NAC appears a safe and effective augmentation strategy for depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder.
Lavoie S, Murray MM, Deppen P, Knyazeva MG, Berk M, Boulat O, Bovet P, Bush AI, Conus P, Copolov D, Fornari E, Meuli R, Solida A, Vianin P, Cuénod M, Buclin T, Do KQ. Glutathione precursor, N-acetyl-cysteine, improves mismatch negativity in schizophrenia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Aug;33(9):2187-99.
In schizophrenia patients, glutathione dysregulation at the gene, protein and functional levels, leads to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction. These patients also exhibit deficits in auditory sensory processing that manifests as impaired mismatch negativity (MMN), which is an auditory evoked potential (AEP) component related to NMDA receptor function. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor, was administered to patients to determine whether increased levels of brain glutathione would improve MMN and by extension NMDA function. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over protocol was conducted, entailing the administration of NAC (2 g/day) for 60 days and then placebo for another 60 days (or vice versa). 128-channel AEPs were recorded during a frequency oddball discrimination task at protocol onset, at the point of cross-over, and at the end of the study. At the onset of the protocol, the MMN of patients was significantly impaired compared to sex- and age- matched healthy controls (p=0.003), without any evidence of concomitant P300 component deficits. Treatment with NAC significantly improved MMN generation compared with placebo (p=0.025) without any measurable effects on the P300 component. MMN improvement was observed in the absence of robust changes in assessments of clinical severity, though the latter was observed in a larger and more prolonged clinical study. This pattern suggests that MMN enhancement may precede changes to indices of clinical severity, highlighting the possible utility AEPs as a biomarker of treatment efficacy. The improvement of this functional marker may indicate an important pathway towards new therapeutic strategies that target glutathione dysregulation in schizophrenia.
Wood SJ, Yücel M, Pantelis C, Berk M. Neurobiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the role of oxidative stress. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2009 May;38(5):396-6.
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The brain is the body’s highest energy consumer, and the glutathione system is the brain’s dominant free radical scavenger. In the current paper, we review the evidence of central and peripheral nervous system anomalies in the oxidative defences of individuals with schizophrenia, principally involving the glutathione system. This is reflected by evidence of the manifold consequences of oxidative stress that include lipid peroxidation, protein carboxylation, DNA damage and apoptosis – all potentially part of the process of neuroprogression in the disorder. Importantly, oxidative stress is amenable to intervention. We consider the clinical potential of some possible interventions that help reduce oxidative stress, via augmentation of the glutathione system, particularly N-acetyl cysteine. We argue that a better understanding of the mechanisms and pathways underlying oxidative stress will assist in developing the therapeutic potential of this area.
Prabakaran S, Swatton JE, Ryan MM, Huffaker SJ, Huang JT, Griffin JL, Wayland M, Freeman T, Dudbridge F, Lilley KS, Karp NA, Hester S, Tkachev D, Mimmack ML, Yolken RH, Webster MJ, Torrey EF, Bahn S. Mol Mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia: evidence for compromised brain metabolism and oxidative stress. Psychiatry. 2004 Jul;9(7):684-97, 643.
The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain unknown. A parallel transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics approach was employed on human brain tissue to explore the molecular disease signatures. Almost half the altered proteins identified by proteomics were associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative stress responses. This was mirrored by transcriptional and metabolite perturbations. Cluster analysis of transcriptional alterations showed that genes related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress differentiated almost 90% of schizophrenia patients from controls, while confounding drug effects could be ruled out. We propose that oxidative stress and the ensuing cellular adaptations are linked to the schizophrenia disease process and hope that this new disease concept may advance the approach to treatment, diagnosis and disease prevention of schizophrenia and related syndromes.
Dean OM, van den Buuse M, Berk M, Copolov DL, Mavros C, Bush AI. N-acetyl cysteine restores brain glutathione loss in combined 2-cyclohexene-1-one and d-amphetamine-treated rats: Relevance to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neurosci Lett. 2011 May 20
Oxidative stress and reduced brain levels of glutathione have been implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of glutathione and has additional effects on glutamate neurotransmission, neurogenesis and inflammation. While NAC treatment has shown benefits in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Similarly, the interaction between oxidative stress and altered dopaminergic activities in psychiatric illness is not yet characterized. This study investigated the capacity of NAC in restoring brain glutathione depletion in rats that received 2-cyclohexene-1-one (CHX, 75mg/kg), d-amphetamine (2.5mg/kg) or both. CHX, but not amphetamine, induced significant depletion of glutathione levels in the striatum and frontal cortex. Glutathione depletion was reversed by NAC (1000mg/kg) in saline-treated and amphetamine-treated (frontal cortex only) rats. While NAC was shown to be beneficial in this model, the lack of additional glutathione depletion by amphetamine in combination with CHX does not support a summative interaction between oxidative stress and altered dopamine transmission.
Aizenman E, Lipton SA, Loring RH. Selective modulation of NMDA responses by reduction and oxidation. Neuron. 1989 Mar;2(3):1257-63.
Electrophysiological responses to the glutamate analog N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) measured in three different central neuronal preparations are subject to a novel modulatory mechanism: they are substantially potentiated after exposure to the disulfide reducing agent dithiothreitol, while oxidation with 5-5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid decreases the magnitude of the response. Modification of the NMDA response by either oxidation or reduction does not appear to affect the pharmacological properties of the receptor-channel complex. Since we observe that the redox state of the native receptor-channel complex varies widely among neurons, an in vivo mechanism that can strongly regulate NMDA-activated functions by either reduction or oxidation may exist. In addition, these results suggest that it may be possible to design specific redox agents for characterizing the NMDA receptor-channel complex.